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Plasmodium Typing

Reference
BE-A988
Packaging
25 tests per kit
Nucleic Acid
DNA
CE Marking
yes
Controls
Positive control and cellular extraction control included
Detected species
P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, P. knowlesi
Species differenciation
Yes
Test
Qualitative or quantitative
Validated on
human whole blood samples
Sensitivity
10 copies/μl

 

Malaria is a serious infectious disease that may be fatal, caused by a parasite of the genus Plasmodium (phylum Apicomplexa) and spread by the bite of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. The parasite develops in the liver cells before infecting the blood, by colonizing and destroying the erythrocytes. Among the many species of Plasmodium that have been identified, five of these are able to infect humans: P.falciparum, P.vivax, P.malariae, P.ovale and more recently P.knowlesi. P.falciparum is the most virulent species and is responsible for the majority of deaths.

 

Malaria is endemic in tropical regions of America, Africa and Asia, and mainly affects disadvantaged areas. In Europe, only imported cases of malaria are reported.

 

The clinical manifestations of malaria are diversified. Characterized by acute febrile episodes, this disease causes fever, and may be accompanied by headaches, muscle aches, cough, diarrhea and vomiting. Alternating cycles of fever, shaking with cold sweats and intense sweating can then occur: this is called "malaria attack". Malaria caused by P.falciparum can be fatal if not treated. In some cases, the infected red blood cells can block blood vessels supplying the brain: this is cerebral malaria, which is often fatal.

 

Microscopic examination of a blood smear and a thick drop is the reference method for the diagnosis of malaria. However, these methods take a long time and require skilled medical personnel. Alternative techniques, especially based on the principle of immunochromatography have been developed over the years to reduce the time to obtain results. However, the main drawback of these rapid diagnostic tests is a lack of sensitivity and may consequently lead to false-negative results. The negative results must thus be confirmed by other diagnostic methods. This is why molecular biology and more particularly the PCR technique play a key role in the diagnosis of malaria, especially thanks to an increased sensitivity and the ability to differentiate the Plasmodium species. Indeed, some species, and mostly P.falciparum, are more virulent and require rapid and appropriate treatment. In addition, the real-time PCR can, nowadays, quickly quantify the parasite load, allowing to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to be more specific, particularly in the cases of mixed infection. In this context, the use of Bio Evolution Plasmodium Typing real-time PCR kit designed for detection and differentiation of the five Plasmodium species, in less than 80 min (excluding DNA extraction), has a major benefit for the diagnosis of malaria.